Discussion:
The moral case for population reduction
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(David P.)
2021-07-13 19:24:48 UTC
Permalink
The moral case for population reduction
July 13, 2021
A frequent assumption in population policy debates is that
stabilizing populations will be sufficient to achieve
ecological sustainability. But as Karin Kuhlemann observes,
“that a population’s size is stable in no way entails sustain-
ability. It may be sustainable, or it may be far too large.”
A recent book from philosopher Trevor Hedberg convincingly
argues the moral case for global population reduction.

by Philip Cafaro

In recent decades, scientific studies and ethical analyses
of global climate disruption and mass species extinction
have proliferated, along with calls for political action to
avert these twin ecological disasters. These investigations
& proposals have mostly avoided discussing population policy.
Now humanity’s failure to arrest global ecological decline
has become the stuff of regular news reports, & the reali-
zation is starting to sink in that the impacts we worried
about inflicting on our grandchildren are happening to us.
This seems to have opened up an intellectual space to discuss
“the P word.” As philosopher Trevor Hedberg writes in his
excellent new book The Environmental Impact of Overpopulation
from Routledge Press:

"We are now over 25 years past the UN Int'l Conference on
Population & Development – the venue where explicit discussion
of population policy became a political taboo. Evading the
problem has not helped us. Population growth has continued &
made it more difficult to mitigate climate change, slow down
the rate of species extinctions, & adequately distribute the
world’s finite resources. Minimizing the harm that befalls
present & future people requires confronting this reality &
abandoning the fiction that procreative choices are too
private or intimate to be subjected to moral scrutiny."

Or as Samuel Johnson once said: “Depend upon it, sir, when a
man knows he is to be hanged in a fortnight, it concentrates
his mind wonderfully.”

Important recent studies of population ethics include Sarah
Conly’s One Child: Do We Have a Right to More? (2015) and
Partha Dasgupta’s Time and the Generations: Population Ethics
for a Diminishing Planet (2019). Hedberg’s The Environmental
Impact of Overpopulation: The Ethics of Procreation (2020) is
a valuable addition to this literature. All three books are
grounded in the realization that excessive human numbers are
helping drive humanity deeper into ecological overshoot.
While they start out from different ethical premises and
support somewhat different policy prescriptions, all three
scholars converge on the general conclusion that policies to
limit human numbers are necessary to create the ecologically
sustainable societies essential to future human well-being.

Hedberg’s philosophical approach does not rely on any
particular ethical theory, such as utilitarianism or social
contract theory. Instead he appeals to general moral
principles that he believes most people, whether theorists
or the general public, will accept. The first half of his
book’s central argument, which he calls the Population
Reduction Argument (PRA), runs as follows:

1.People morally ought to avoid causing massive and
unnecessary harm to other currently existing people.

2.Our moral duties of non-harm are just as stringent toward
future people as they are toward current people.

3.Thus we morally ought to avoid causing massive unnecessary
harm to future people. [necessarily follows from premises
1 and 2]

4.If we do not dramatically reduce our current levels of
environmental degradation, then we will cause massive and
unnecessary harm to future people.

5.Therefore we morally ought to greatly reduce our current
levels of environmental degradation. [necessarily follows
from premises 3 and 4]

Premise 1 is indeed a generally accepted moral principle:
almost everyone accepts the idea that people should avoid
causing important & unnecessary harms to others. Premise 2
is denied by many mainstream economists, who accept
discounting the well-being of future people, at least people
in the far future, in the same way that businesses discount
future returns on capital compared to current returns. But
Hedberg convincingly argues that what may be good economics
is bad morality, in a world where our actions today could
make a huge difference to our descendants’ quality of life.
Hence he affirms a robust moral duty to avoid massive harm
to future people (premise 3). Combined with recent scientific
evidence that current levels of environmental degradation
imperil future generations (premise 4), this logically
implies a moral duty to greatly reduce such degradation
(premise 5).

Few environmentalists are likely to disagree with the first
half of Hedberg’s argument. But many still avoid connecting
the duty to limit environmental degradation to a commitment
to addressing population matters. The second half of PRA
aims to compel this conclusion:

6.Environmental degradation is the product of human
population size and the average rate of environmental
degradation per person.

7.Thus we morally ought to reduce our population size,
reduce the average rate of environmental degradation per
person, or reduce both. [necessarily follows from
premises 5 and 6]

8.There is no morally permissible way to reduce population
size enough to adequately respond to our environmental
problems if the average rate of environmental degradation
per person remains unchanged.

9.There is no feasible way to reduce the rate of environ-
mental degradation per person enough to adequately respond
to our environmental problems if our population size remains
at its current size or continues to grow.

Conclusion: Therefore we morally ought to do both: reduce
our rates of environmental degradation per person & reduce
our current population size. [necessarily follows from
premises 7, 8 and 9]

Premise 6 is a version of Ehrlich’s & Holdren’s IPAT
formula with affluence (A) and technology (T) combined.
Hedberg justifies this by noting the need for prompt action
& the uncertainty about whether technological progress will
help or hinder efforts to protect the biosphere, asserting
that “even if some technological optimism is justified, the
rapid onset of these problems simply does not give us enough
time to wait for techno-fixes to emerge” (56). So in order
to live up to our moral duty to avoid massive environmental
degradation, we must address either population size or
average consumption, or both (premise 7). The question of
which must be informed by science.

Given humanity’s current population momentum (we add over
80 million people to the global population annually) & the
evidence that we are already overpopulated by billions of
people relative to what Earth can sustain, there is no way
we can humanely reduce the global population fast enough &
drastically enough to avoid having to cut back on our per
person consumption (premise 8). Hedberg thus rejects views
which see population reduction as an environmental panacea.
But the obstacles to cutting average consumption fast & deep
enough to avoid environmental catastrophe are perhaps even
more daunting. After all, most nations around the globe
have decreased their fertility rates significantly over the
past half century, while no country in the world has a lower
per capita consumption rate than it did 50 years ago, or
aspires to one. Hundreds of millions of people around the
globe would like to have better access to contraception to
decrease their personal fertility, according to national
health surveys, but there is no evidence that many people
are looking for ways to significantly decrease their
personal consumption. Thus there appears to be no feasible
way to cut average consumption enough to sustain a global
population of 8-12 billion people over the long term (premise 9).

The realization that premises 8 and 9 are both true leads
many environmentalists to throw up our hands and hope for
technological miracles; it leads others to put their heads
down and work on their own projects to protect particular
landscapes or species. Such personal efforts are valuable,
but their long-term success will depend on the creation of
ecologically sustainable societies—and as premise 7 affirms,
we have a moral obligation to create such societies. Instead
of avoidance or wishful thinking, committed environmentalists
should hold fast to this fundamental moral commitment, accept
the massive empirical confirmation of premises 8 and 9, and
join Hedberg in concluding that humanity must reduce both our
per person environmental demands and reduce our current
population size. Both. Significantly. As quickly as possible,
subject to moral and practical limits—which, however, cannot
be used as excuses for inaction without the grim
consequences rebounding on us and our descendants.

So runs Hedberg’s central moral argument, which he develops
with great clarity and ingenuity in the first half of his
book. Its second half is devoted to fleshing out the
practical implications regarding both personal procreation
decisions & govt population policies, & to responding to
likely objections to his positions. Hedberg is particularly
concerned to identify public policies that uphold & enhance
human rights, including a right to procreate. But his
treatment suggests that in our crowded future, upholding
rights will depend on acknowledging limits rather than
avoiding thinking about them. As he writes:

"In the past, there was often no danger of undermining
others’ rights by procreating excessively: in fact, for
the vast majority of human history, we needed to be rather
prolific in our procreation just to ensure the continuation
of our species. But our circumstances have changed, & so our
limits on the right to procreate must change as well." (134)

Coercion & rights violations can take many forms, not the
least of which involve hunger, poverty, homelessness,
ill-health, poor schooling, & physical insecurity—all of
which are made worse by excessive human numbers. Hence
societies have a strong interest in avoiding overpopulation.

We'll have a better chance to create societies that avoid
overpopulation while maximizing human freedom if we
explicitly talk about that goal and how to achieve it.
That’s why the appearance of this book is so welcome;
hopefully, it will spur many lively conversations. Environ-
mentalists should welcome The Environmental Impact of
Overpopulation and similar efforts, because limiting human
numbers will be key to preserving wild nature and creating
sustainable societies in coming years. Hedberg’s main
analysis is anthropocentric, focused on human interests &
how best to further them. But a short chapter titled “What
about the nonhuman community?” notes that if we extend
moral consideration to other species, the incentives to
reduce our own numbers increase significantly. Or as one of
the Center for Biological Diversity’s Endangered Species
Condoms puts it: “Wrap with care, save the polar bear.”

https://overpopulation-project.com/the-moral-case-for-population-reduction/
FBInCIAnNSATerroristSlayer
2021-07-14 04:45:27 UTC
Permalink
Post by (David P.)
The moral case for population reduction
July 13, 2021
A frequent assumption in population policy debates is that
stabilizing populations will be sufficient to achieve
ecological sustainability. But as Karin Kuhlemann observes,
“that a population’s size is stable in no way entails sustain-
ability. It may be sustainable, or it may be far too large.”
A recent book from philosopher Trevor Hedberg convincingly
argues the moral case for global population reduction.
by Philip Cafaro
In recent decades, scientific studies and ethical analyses
GENOCIDAL proselytizing abrahamic EVIL VIRUSES should be COMPLETELY
BANNED from BREEDING in the future cuz they are INFESTING this beautiful
planet with EVEN MORE GENOCIDAL VIRUS destroying every religion, nation,
ethnicity.

WHITE CHRISTIAN RACE was NEVER CIVILIZED.

WHITE CHRISTIAN RACE has always been a BARBARIC, SADISTIC, PERVERTED,
EVIL, DECEPTIVE, CUNNING GENOCIDAL RACIST THIEVES.



MERCILESSLY MASSACRE CIA, FBI, NSA psychopaths like FUCKING PIGS.

If I see one, I will UNLOAD every bullet in CIA and NSA agents' heads
for SECRETLY CHIPPING amrikkkans with MIND CONTROL CHIPS and TORTURING
with DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS.





NOT ONE WHITE WILL COME FORWARD TO FIGHT AN OPPONENT with "SAME/EQUAL
WEAPONS" cuz Whites FEAR DEATH like no other race and WHITES are "PURE
COWARDS".


Whites NEVER HAD bravery in their DNA.

SHAMELESSNESS of "pathologically LYING, DECEIVING, CUNNING filthy white
race" is SO REPULSIVE and DISGUSTING to the point, it is completely
justified to ELIMINATE EVIL WHITE RACE from this beautiful planet.


Entire amrikkkan white filth including POTUS n congress "LIVES IN FEAR
of their REAL GOVT" aka Nation State aka
FBI+CIA+NSA+DOE+DHS+DNI+DIA+DARPA+IRS+COPS+DOD etc but yet delude
themselves, lie to themselves and lie to the whole world that amrikkka
is a democracy and free world.


White filth WET THEIR PANTIES just to even CONVERSE about CIA, NSA, FBI
etc and then PREACH "democracy and freedoms" to the whole world.

DISGUSTING fucking white race.


40,000 NSA and FBI Cointelpro agents are SECRETLY CHIPPING Amrikkkans
with MIND CONTROL CHIPS for more than 40 years.


With Magnetic Nanoparticles, Scientists Remotely Control Neurons and
Animal Behavior
http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2010/07/11518.html


CIA n NSA Mind Control Technologies are 70 YRS more advanced than what
these university scientists developed.



You fucking white xtian morons, NSA psychopaths have been SPRAYING these
MIND CONTROL NANOBOTS in the air you breathe. These MIND CONTROL
NANOBOTS go through your NOSE and settle in your brains and stay there
FOR GOOD. These NANOBOTS get recharged by your brain's electric impulses.


CIA, NSA knows EVERY THOUGHT PROCESS that occurs in your brain, which
are being RECORDED in NSA Super computers.



This is WHAT HAPPENED to your cocksucking BRAINS, YOU WHITE XTIAN
MORONS. Your brains are TEAMING with THOUSANDS OF THESE MIND CONTROL
NANOBOTS.

Nanobots replacing neurons



CIA, NSA and FBI psychopaths STEALTHILY TORTURE you and other amrikkkans
and ACCUSE THEM to be schizophrenic, delusional and lunatics, when
VICTIMS COMPLAIN.


WHITES DON'T UNDERSTAND their own PATHOLOGICAL LYING, CUNNING and DECEPTION.





I have been PLAYING and TOYING with the EVIL, COWARD WHITE XTIAN VIRUS
CIA, NSA, MI6, MI5, ASIS, ASIO Psychopaths for more than 20 years and
PUBLICLY and PRIVATELY "HUMILIATED" them and TURNED them into "IMPOTENT
COWARDS", whom the ENTIRE filthy perverted coward WHITE RACE and POTUS n
Prime Ministers "LIVE IN FEAR OF".



MERCILESSLY MASSACRE THE CIA, NSA n FBI AGENTS LIKE FUCKING PIGS for
SECRETLY CHIPPING Amrikkkans with MIND CONTROL CHIPS and TORTURING with
Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs)
https://groups.google.com/g/uk.sport.cricket/c/rATE8TaLIcg/m/B77TudfbAQAJ



WESTERN WHITE CHRISTIANS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN A "RACE OF PUSSIES and COWARDS"
https://groups.google.com/d/msg/uk.sport.cricket/QL1E59PpbHA/mmQTlsDwAwAJ
El Castor
2021-07-14 06:06:33 UTC
Permalink
On Tue, 13 Jul 2021 12:24:48 -0700 (PDT), "(David P.)"
Post by (David P.)
The moral case for population reduction
July 13, 2021
A frequent assumption in population policy debates is that
stabilizing populations will be sufficient to achieve
ecological sustainability. But as Karin Kuhlemann observes,
“that a population’s size is stable in no way entails sustain-
ability. It may be sustainable, or it may be far too large.”
A recent book from philosopher Trevor Hedberg convincingly
argues the moral case for global population reduction.
by Philip Cafaro
etc deleted
Post by (David P.)
https://overpopulation-project.com/the-moral-case-for-population-reduction/
The issue that you seem unwilling to confront is fertility rates. If
the women of a country average fewer than 2.1 children apiece the
population of that country will gradually shrink to zero. Most of the
developed world, including the United States, is in that category.
Aha, but you say, the population of the United States (1.84) is
growing! Two reasons -- unchecked immigration and a previously higher
rate than 2.1 which left us with a peaking wave of women still of
child bearing age. Some countries like Italy (1.47) and Japan (1.38)
are already experiencing a severe population decline. Most of East
Asia is far below replacement rate, as is most of the developed world.
All of Africa is above replacement as well as much of the Middle East,
India, and some countries in Central and South America.

What can we do? Provide those significantly above 2.1 with birth
control and cease to welcome their excess populations at our southern
border. Japan has for years been working on robotics and automation --
something that the rest of the developed world has begun to emulate.

"Country Comparisons
Total fertility rate"
https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/total-fertility-rate/country-comparison

"Japan's Population Is In Rapid Decline"
https://www.npr.org/2018/12/21/679103541/japans-population-is-in-rapid-decline#:~:text=About%20127%20million%20people%20live%20in%20Japan.%20The,its%20inhabitants%20are%20aging%20out%20of%20the%20workforce.

"As Birthrate Falls, South Korea’s Population Declines, Posing Threat
to Economy"
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/04/world/asia/south-korea-population.html

"Global population decline will hit China hard
Business leaders and analysts see the global population declining in
the next century, and China will be badly affected. The Asian nation
is well-advised to make precautions soon to avoid a humanitarian
crisis."
https://www.dw.com/en/global-population-decline-will-hit-china-hard/a-50326522

"Italy is dying: Country’s birth rate drops to its lowest level in
history
The shrinking population affects the 'very existence of our country,'
President Sergio Mattarella warns."
https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/italy-is-dying-countrys-birth-rate-drops-to-its-lowest-level-in-history

"Germany's birth rate drops, confirming dramatic predictions for the
whole world
Births in Germany are down, while its population ages. It's a similar
trend in other countries. A new study predicts a dramatic reduction in
the population in most countries by the end of the century."
https://www.dw.com/en/demography-german-birthrate-down-in-coronavirus-pandemic/a-54395345
FBInCIAnNSATerroristSlayer
2021-07-14 16:38:50 UTC
Permalink
Post by El Castor
On Tue, 13 Jul 2021 12:24:48 -0700 (PDT), "(David P.)"
Post by (David P.)
The moral case for population reduction
July 13, 2021
A frequent assumption in population policy debates is that
stabilizing populations will be sufficient to achieve
ecological sustainability. But as Karin Kuhlemann observes,
“that a population’s size is stable in no way entails sustain-
ability. It may be sustainable, or it may be far too large.”
A recent book from philosopher Trevor Hedberg convincingly
argues the moral case for global population reduction.
by Philip Cafaro
etc deleted
Post by (David P.)
https://overpopulation-project.com/the-moral-case-for-population-reduction/
The issue that you seem unwilling to confront is fertility rates. If
the women of a country average fewer than 2.1 children apiece the
population of that country will gradually shrink to zero. Most of the
developed world, including the United States, is in that category.
Aha, but you say, the population of the United States (1.84) is
growing! Two reasons -- unchecked immigration and a previously higher
rate than 2.1 which left us with a peaking wave of women still of
child bearing age. Some countries like Italy (1.47) and Japan (1.38)
are already experiencing a severe population decline. Most of East
Asia is far below replacement rate, as is most of the developed world.
All of Africa is above replacement as well as much of the Middle East,
India, and some countries in Central and South America.
What can we do? Provide those significantly above 2.1 with birth
control and cease to welcome their excess populations at our southern
border. Japan has for years been working on robotics and automation --
something that the rest of the developed world has begun to emulate.
"Country Comparisons
Total fertility rate"
https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/total-fertility-rate/country-comparison
"Japan's Population Is In Rapid Decline"
https://www.npr.org/2018/12/21/679103541/japans-population-is-in-rapid-decline#:~:text=About%20127%20million%20people%20live%20in%20Japan.%20The,its%20inhabitants%20are%20aging%20out%20of%20the%20workforce.
"As Birthrate Falls, South Korea’s Population Declines, Posing Threat
to Economy"
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/04/world/asia/south-korea-population.html
"Global population decline will hit China hard
Business leaders and analysts see the global population declining in
the next century, and China will be badly affected. The Asian nation
is well-advised to make precautions soon to avoid a humanitarian
crisis."
https://www.dw.com/en/global-population-decline-will-hit-china-hard/a-50326522
"Italy is dying: Country’s birth rate drops to its lowest level in
history
The shrinking population affects the 'very existence of our country,'
President Sergio Mattarella warns."
https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/italy-is-dying-countrys-birth-rate-drops-to-its-lowest-level-in-history
"Germany's birth rate drops, confirming dramatic predictions for the
whole world
Births in Germany are down, while its population ages. It's a similar
trend in other countries. A new study predicts a dramatic reduction in
the population in most countries by the end of the century."
https://www.dw.com/en/demography-german-birthrate-down-in-coronavirus-pandemic/a-54395345
Oh don't worry.

The bible thumping german whitefucks IMPORTED 2 MILLION KORAN THUMPING
SYRIANS, their fellow proselytizing abrahamic genocidal VIRUS, which
DESTROYED indigenous religions, ethnicities, countries and civilizations
just like the EVIL genocidal proselytizing abrahamic CHRISTIANITY VIRUS.

I can't wait for the bible thumping germans and koran thumping germans
MASSACRE EACH OTHER.

In fact, all the peace loving people should ROOT for CHRISTIANITY and
ISLAM just to MASSACRE and ELIMINATE EACH OTHER, so the rest of the
human species can live happily in peace and harmony.


ROOT OF EVERY PROBLEM on this planet is the motherfucking EVIL WHITE
XTIAN VIRUS RACE and their INFINITE GREED, INFINITE SELFISHNESS,
INFINITE DECEPTION, INFINITE CUNNING and THIEVING DNA.


If racial superiority is uncivilized as it should be, then why is
RELIGIOUS SUPERIORITY kosher?

WHO THE FUCK are these EVIL motherfucking, animal raping, confused
gender PERVERTED GENOCIDAL WHITE XTIAN RACE VIRUS to "set rules and
standards" for the human species?

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